Global map of peak years

Map of countries peak-rate year and percentage increase of production at peak rate year

What is displayed?

Either for all crops combined or for a selected crop, each country is potted in a different color (yellow: there is a peak-year, orange: no peak year, gray: no sufficient data, mostly because crop not planted). Additionally, colored circles illustrate the year, when production has had a peak (color) as well as the rate of production increase for that peak year (size of circle)

What can be changed interactively?

On default the peak years of all crop combined based on their caloric value are shown. If in the panel to the left a certain crop is selected, the map changes accordingly.

When selecting a certain crop, also the info-box to the left is updated an the peak-rate year of that specific crop is updated.

Forest plot of peak years

Forest plot showing the estimated peak year and its uncertainty for each crop that is planted in the regions of interest (global or selected country)

What is displayed?

For each crop the median peak rate year of production is displayed, if identified. Uncertainty bars represent 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles derived from 5,000 bootstrap estimates (see Data & Methods). Point size illustrate the relative increase of production in percent in that peak rate year. Note, due to bootstraping the resulting distribution of peak-rate years can be skewed and the median peak rate year might not necessarily be centered in the confidence interval.

What can be changed interactively?

On default the peak years of crops of all countries (global) is shown. If a country is selected, the figure shows the crops that (a) are produced in the county and (b) that show a peak rate year.

Note, when selecting a country also the histograms in the bottom row changes and shows the total area harvested for all crops in that country (bottom left) as well as the total calories produced for each crop in that specific country (bottom right). Also the info-box to the left is updated and the peak-rate year of crop production in that country is displayd, summarized for all crops combined based on the caloric value.


Map of countries' stability

Country-specific stability of the total caloric production or of the crop-specific caloric production. Stability is calculated as the mean of the non-time-detrended production divided by the standard deviation of time-detrended production for ten year time periods (see Data & Methods for details).

What is displayed?

Country colors indicate the stability of agricultural production estimated in 1/CV, CV denoting the coefficient of variation.

The size of the circles is relative to the total caloric production of the country.

What can be changed interactively?

Per default, stability of the total caloric production for the most recent time period is shown. In the window on the left, different crops and time periods can be selected. The map will then be updated accordingly.

Stability Histogram

This shows global or country-specific stability of the caloric production of different crops. Stability is calculated as the mean of the non-time-detrended production divided by the standard deviation of time-detrended production for ten year time periods (see Data & Methods for details).

What is displayed?

Each crop is listed on the y-axis and the x-asis shows the production stability in 1/CV, CV denoting the coefficient of variation (see Data & Methods).

What can be changed interactively?

Per default global stability for the most recent time period is shown. Time period can be changed with the time slider in the left panel. In the window on the left, the user might select different countries and time periods. The bar plot will be updated accordingly.

Note, when selecting a country also the histograms in the bottom row are updated. The total area harvested for all crops in that country (bottom left) as well as the total calories produced for each crop in that specific country (bottom right) are displayed.


Map of asynchrony between crops

Country-specific asynchrony between crops. Asynchrony between crops describes the asynchrony of the year-to-year caloric production of different crops within a given country. Asynchrony between crops was calculated based on the time-detrended total caloric production for ten year time periods (see Data & Methods for details).

What is displayed?

Country colors indicate the asynchrony between crops.

What can be changed interactively?

Per default asynchrony between crops is shown for the most recent time period. In the window on the left, different time periods can be selected. The map will then be updated accordingly.

Histogram of asynchrony within crops

Global asynchrony within crops of different countries. Asynchrony within crops describes the asynchrony of the year-to-year caloric production of the same crop at different countries. Asynchrony between crops was calculated based on the time-detrended crop and country-specific caloric production for ten year time periods (see Data & Methods for details).

What is displayed?

Asynchrony within crops (x-axis) is shown for each crop (y-axis).

What can be changed interactively?

Per default, global asynchrony within crops is shown for the most recent time period. In the window on the left, different time periods can be selected and the bar plot will be updated accordingly.


Methodology behind estimating peak rate years

Peak-rate year estimation

We use a method that is standardized, nonparametric, generalizable, and allows analysis of nonrenewable and renewable resources (Seppelt et al. 2014). In contract to the original publication, we here did not make use of the estimation of peak rate year for non-renewable resources. To estimate a peak rate year, the maximum increase of a time series must be calculated, see Figure below.